Productivity and Affinity in the Age of Dignity

Stephen Lee*

This Review proceeds as follows. Part I summarizes The Age of Dignity. Part II explains how this segment of immigrant workers challenges the productivity/affinity binary that dominates immigration law’s formal migration rules. Part III shows how this binary sets up dual migration streams, both of which could account for future flows of care workers. As Part III shows, the example of the eldercare industry nicely illustrates how the employment based and family-based migration systems simply represent two different ways of filling labor needs. I then conclude.

* Professor of Law, University of California, Irvine School of Law. For helpful comments and conversations, I am grateful to Kerry Abrams, Alan Hyde, and Hiroshi Motomura. Alisha Ansari and Kristen Burzynski provided excellent research assistance. Sommer Engels, Will Martin, Jenny Stone, and the rest of the Michigan Law Review staff improved the piece immeasurably. Please direct comments and questions to

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