Liability of a Carrier under a Bill of Lading When the Goods Have Not Been Received by the Carrier

The coming into force on January I, 1917 in the United States of the FXDMAL BILL Or LADING AcT1 has given new interest to a question which was at one time much debated, namely: should a carrier whose shipmaster or agent has signed a bill of lading be liable to an innocent holder for value of such bill of lading if the carrier can show that the goods were never shipped?