Criminal Procedure–Self-Incrimination–Harmless Error–Application of the Harmless Error Doctrine to Violations of Miranda: The California Experience

Using decisions of the appellate courts of California that have applied the federal harmless error rule to violations of Miranda v. Arizona and Escobedo v. Illinois, this Note will examine the logic and effects of the California application. However, the California experience can only be understood by first briefly describing the United States Supreme Court’s decisions regarding harmless constitutional error and then showing the approaches taken by other states in their application of the harmless error rule to Miranda violations. Not only will this analysis put the California experience in its proper perspective, but it will also show the feasibility and difficulties of implementing any harmless error rule.