Conflict-of-Laws Rules by Treaty: Recognition of Companies in a Regional Market

The term “recognition” has many meanings. We speak in family law of a “recognized child,” in public international law of recognizing a newly emerged state or newly installed government, and in private international law (conflict of laws) of recognizing foreign judgments or legal persons. In both public and private international law, it is the nation-state that grants or denies recognition. In public international law, the “recognizing” nation-state expresses “a value judgment acknowledging that a given fact situation is in accord with the exigencies of the international legal order.” In private international law (or conflict of laws), on the other hand, the “recognizing” nation-state agrees to extend to its own system certain legal effects attributed to a fact situation in the legal system of another nation-state.